Fertilizer production requires large volumes of cooling water that serve all of the process heat exchangers, compressor intercoolers, and, occasionally, surface condensers. Decentralized cooling towers use large volumes of treated water that requires chemical treatment to minimize the risks mineral scaling, bacterial fouling and corrosion that can cause poor heat transfer, lost production, equipment damage, environmental discharge violations, and injury or death from system failures. In ammonia plants, leaks of process contaminants such as natural gas or ammonia create a risk of uncontrolled release of volatile process contaminants, bacterial fouling in heat exchangers, and potentially harmful bacteria in the cooling tower plume. Leaks of natural gas into the cooling water circuit require rapid response to minimize the risks of fire in the cooling tower.
Ammonia. These high pressure waste heat boilers with stainless steel alloys require consistent, on-spec operation of pretreatment and boiler feedwater systems to ensure maximum efficiency and reliability of the waste heat steam generators in ammonia plants. Pretreatment systems typically have three bed demineralizer systems and often have a reverse osmosis unit to meet the specification limits for high pressure boilers.
Sulfuric Acid, Phosphoric Acid. The operating pressure for steam generators to produce sulfuric and phosphoric acid is lower than the requirements for ammonia production; however, these processes require large volumes of moderately high pressure steam.